Microencapsulation is a process that allows the delivering of different substances such as active ingredients, vitamins, oils, fragrances and aromas, enzymes, cells or microorganisms in systems of polymeric and/or lipidic nature. There are a number of production techniques available to this purpose, all of which result in the creation of a set of solid particles with a size ranging from 1 to 1000 µm, which are referred to as microcapsules or microspheres according to their structure.
Encapsulation has allowed the creation a vast number of products deemed technically impossible for many years. Such ingredients are completely enclosed or absorbed in a coating material which provides additional properties or eliminates unwanted properties from the ingredient. Microencapsulation is a process through which extremely small particles or droplets are surrounded by a coating, or are incorporated in a homogeneous or heterogeneous matrix, to provide small capsules with a number of useful properties. Microencapsulation can provide a physical barrier between the base compound and the other components of the product.